It is unclear who stopped the landing but a source close to President Ashraf Ghani told the BBC the return had not been co-ordinated with the government.
Gen Dostum left for Turkey in May amid claims he ordered his men to kidnap, beat and rape a political rival.
He denies wrongdoing. His spokesman said he went for a medical check-up.
Atta Mohammad Noor, the powerful governor of northern Balkh province, was waiting at Mazar-e Sharif airport to meet Gen Dostum on Monday night, the Pajhwok news agency reported.
More than 1,000 people accompanied the governor to receive the former warlord at the airport, which is near his home province of Jowzjan.
Witnesses said some Dostum supporters held posters with slogans such as “Welcome back our dear leader,” Reuters news agency reported.